Foreign experience
  • 2020 № 6  International experience in implementing programs of enrichment of vita- mins and minerals with diets for various social groups of the population

    The issues of the implementation of national programs for the enrichment of vitamins and minerals with diets of various social groups of the population and food products are considered, performance indicators of these technologies are reflected from the standpoint of public health.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Vlasov Y.  V. [1] Gureev S.  A. [7]

    Tags: food fortification1 fortification1 micronutrients1 minerals1 public health8 social groups1 technologies1 vitamins1

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  • Healthcare economics
  • 2023 № 7 Organization of preventive examinations of the adult population in the Healthy Moscow pavilions.

    The value and originality of the new organizational approach implemented in the Healthy Moscow program lies in the fact that mobile pavilions have been set up as part of a large-scale preventive examination of the population in convenient location accessibility – park areas, squares and recreation areas, which makes it possible to identify not only diseases at an early stages, but also risk factors among population groups who consider themselves healthy, as well as organize targeted promotion of a healthy lifestyle. During the period of the Healthy Moscow program, more than a million citizens underwent preventive examinations in the pavilions, and to a greater extent the population that, for a number of reasons, rarely visits polyclinics and who do not have pronounced symptoms of diseases. However,
    according to the results of the surveys, it was revealed that approximately 12% of the so-called healthy people have diseases.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Bezymyanny A. S. [3] Grinin V. M. [2]

    Tags: clinical examination2 health improvement2 healthy lifestyle promotion2 prevention23 risk factors15 screening programs2 “healthy moscow”2

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  • 2023 № 7 Rehabilitation and preventive measures for infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system in children, considering the risk factors.

    The article presents an analysis of the materials of domestic and foreign scientific articles on the issues of modern features of the prevalence of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system among children and rehabilitation and preventive measures, taking into account risk factors. Information on the so-called internal risk factors, such as congenital malformations of the genitourinary system and disorders of the immunological state of the body, leading to infectious and inflammatory diseases (pyelonephritis, urinary tract infections, cystitis, urethritis, asymptomatic bacteriuria, etc.) is considered in detail. The emergence, in particular, of pyelonephritis can be facilitated by late breastfeeding, early transfer to mixed and artificial feeding. The risk group also includes children born to mothers with pyelonephritis, which is associated with heredity and perinatal risk factors (complicated pregnancy in the mother, chronic intrauterine fetal hypoxia, intrauterine growth retardation). Taking into account the whole variety of risk factors will make it possible to build programs for medical and social prevention and rehabilitation for infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system in children.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Gasajnieva M. M. [3]

    Tags: children13 infectious and inflammatory diseases1 rehabilitation and preventive measures1 risk factors15 urogenital system1 uronephrological diseases1

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  • Law
  • 2020 № 7 On the issue of legal protection of adolescent girls ‘ reproduc tive health

    The article presents an overview of modern approaches to legal protection of reproductive health of adolescent girls
    in the Russian Federation. The system aspects of health protection of girls and adolescent girls, as well as prevention of violations
    of reproductive health formation, are taken into account. The research was based on Federal laws, regulatory and legislative acts
    of individual subjects of the Russian Federation, and relevant scientific publications. The legal priority in ensuring the reproductive
    health of girls and adolescent girls is determined by the availability and quality of specific medical care, as well as relevant sections of the main legal documents.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Zhelezova P. V. [3] Samojlova A. V. [1] Zagorujchenko A. A. [1] Shigabutdinova T. N. [2]

    Tags: adolescent girls1 eproductive health1 health4 health protection4 legal regulation1 legislation4 prevention23 regulatory framework1

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  • Management in health care
  • 2020 № 8 Improving rural health care through business process management

    Meeting the needs of the rural population in all types of primary health care (pre-medical and general medical
    care), as well as specialized medical care, improving the quality of medical care for the rural population is an important
    public health problem that is difficult to solve and is of particular concern to government structures at all levels of government. The article presents an analysis of the literature on the use of business processes in modern healthcare, the main tasks of which are the creation and development of effective models for the provision of medical care that increase not only its accessibility and quality, but also the satisfaction of the population. As part of the activities of the modernization program for the implementation of information technology in healthcare, it is planned to create information resources and services that would allow, using this system tool, to move to a qualitatively new level of organization of industry management. It is noted that at present, at the level of management of the medical organization as a whole, and in the management of individual areas of its activity, the application of the process approach is becoming relevant, in which the medical organization can be considered as a separate business system, which is a related set of business processes, the ultimate goal which, undoubtedly, is the provision of quality medical services. It is shown that the development and modeling of business processes will increase the relevance of management information, will make it possible to focus on rationalizing cross-functional processes to significantly reduce time and / or costs, increase revenue, improve service quality and reduce risks, the information system allows you to simulate processes and carry them out further optimization.
    The analyzed works examine the experience of process-oriented management in medical organizations and its role in ensuring the improvement of the quality of medical services provided. In addition, the introduction of a process approach will allow the application of certain managerial decisions necessary in each specific situation, including in the field of medical services for the rural population.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Bakirova E. A. [5]

    Tags: business process reengineering1 business processes1 management14 process approach7 quality of medical care20 rural health care2

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  • Management in healthcare
  • 2023 № 7 Organization of preventive examinations of the adult population in the Healthy Moscow pavilions.

    The value and originality of the new organizational approach implemented in the Healthy Moscow program lies in the fact that mobile pavilions have been set up as part of a large-scale preventive examination of the population in convenient location accessibility – park areas, squares and recreation areas, which makes it possible to identify not only diseases at an early stages, but also risk factors among population groups who consider themselves healthy, as well as organize targeted promotion of a healthy lifestyle. During the period of the Healthy Moscow program, more than a million citizens underwent preventive examinations in the pavilions, and to a greater extent the population that, for a number of reasons, rarely visits polyclinics and who do not have pronounced symptoms of diseases. However,
    according to the results of the surveys, it was revealed that approximately 12% of the so-called healthy people have diseases.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Bezymyanny A. S. [3] Grinin V. M. [2]

    Tags: clinical examination2 health improvement2 healthy lifestyle promotion2 prevention23 risk factors15 screening programs2 “healthy moscow”2

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  • 2023 № 4 Normative support and assessment of the availability of otorhinolaryngological care for children and adolescents.

    Diseases of the ear, throat, nose in children and adolescents are one of the most pressing public health problems due to their high prevalence and medical and social significance, both in our country and abroad. The condition for increasing the effectiveness of otolaryngological care for children and adolescents is to ensure its accessibility.
    P u r p o s e : analysis of regulatory support and assessment of the availability of medical care for children and adolescents in the field of otorhinolaryngology.
    M a t e r i a l s a n d m e t h o d s . Methods of legal analysis, expert assessments, as well as expert, mathematical-statistical and analytical methods were applied.
    F i n d i n g s . Studies conducted in 2022 on the basis of children’s polyclinics in the city of Ramenskoye, Moscow Region, revealed “bottlenecks” in the legal regulation of the issues of access to medical care for children and adolescents in children’s polyclinics. A methodology for an integral assessment of the availability of otorhinolaryngological care for children and adolescents in the conditions of children’s polyclinics has been developed. The deviation of the integral evaluation index according to the proposed method by 18,0% relative to the optimal level was revealed, which requires involvement of local authorities in solving problems.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Oleynik A. V. [1] Mushnikov D. L. [1]

    Tags: accessibility of medical care2 children and adolescents2 ent diseases3 normative support1 pediatric otorhinolaryngology1

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  • 2023 № 2 Features of the structure and dynamics of morbidity rates in children and adolescents in the Republic of Azerbaijan.

    Analysis of the incidence of children and adolescents in the Republic of Azerbaijan for 2014–2019 showed that the largest share in the structure of the general morbidity of children was occupied by respiratory diseases – 47,5%, certain conditions that occur in the perinatal period – 18,1%, some infectious and parasitic diseases – 9,1%, diseases of the digestive system – 8,5%, The largest increase in the level of primary morbidity in children in 2019 compared to 2014 was observed in mental and behavioral disorders – by 370,1% in the age group 0–5 years and by 208,4% in the age group 14–17 years, by 49,7% in the age group of 6–13 years; diseases of the eye and its accessory apparatus – by 41,5% in the age group of 0–5 years, by 15,2% in the age group of 14–17 years and by 13,4% in the age group of 6–13 years; neoplasms – by 28,4% in the age group of 0–5 years and 26% in the age group of 6–13 years.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Mingazov R. N. [11] Mustafaeva Z. M. [1] Shegai M. M. [1]

    Tags: child population2 children and adolescents2 morbidity dynamics1 morbidity structure1 the republic of azerbaijan1

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  • 2022 № 5 Child mortality in different countries during the COVID‑19 pandemic

    At the beginning of the pandemic, COVID‑19 deaths were relatively higher among older children than in younger age groups, although there was a high likelihood of life-threatening cases of COVID‑19 in children with underlying medical conditions. Low child mortality from COVID‑19 is attributed by the authors of the study to the use of protective measures by children from high-risk groups and isolation measures. However, the COVID‑19 pandemic has led to serious disruptions in the work of health services in various countries, to interruptions in the provision of maternal and child health services (medical examinations, vaccinations, prenatal and postnatal care, and others), to a shortage of medical personnel.
    Purpose: to analyze the data of scientific studies on the characteristics of child mortality in various countries with the allocation of risks in the system of maternal and child health care.
    Materials and methods: bibliographic and analytical methods were used in the work.
    Findings: Premature newborns are particularly vulnerable to the COVID‑19 pandemic, especially in low- and middle-income countries where the impact of health system failures is significant. Restrictions during the COVID‑19 pandemic exacerbate the risks of stillbirth, including delayed delivery. The drop in preterm birth rates seen in high-income countries is attributed by researchers to the indirect effects of the response to the COVID‑19 pandemic, and data on stillbirths are not taken into account, which may make it difficult to explain the decline.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Tliashinova I. A. [3]

    Tags: child population2 covid-19 pandemic6 maternal and child health service1 mortality21 perinatal risks1 stillbirth1

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  • 2020 № 5 Analysis of the study of the opinions and satisfaction of medic al personnel with features in the organization of the work of a network of d ental clinics, united in a research and production network

    The article presents the results of a sociological survey according to a specially developed questionnaire, which made it possible to elicit the opinion of medical personnel (dentists and managers) in certain areas of improving the organization of medical care, affecting the level of service in branch clinics integrated into a research and production network. Based on this questionnaire, answers were received about the organization of activities and recommendations were developed to improve the organization of work of the integrated research and production network.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Yu. A. Ulianov [1]

    Tags: corporate culture5 dental medical clinics united in a research and production network1 medical staff satisfaction1 motivation2 questionnaires2 sociological assessment1

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  • POPULATION HEALTH
  • 2023 № 5 Arterial hypertension among children and adolescents as a prognostic risk factor. Problems of diagnosis.

    An analysis of modern studies has shown that arterial hypertension, detected in childhood, is one of the main risk factors for both cardiovascular diseases and the progression of renal failure in subsequent age periods, which indicates the importance of early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this condition among children and children. teenagers. The increase in the prevalence of hypertension among children and the associated health risks actualize the issues of the level, methods, techniques and frequency of blood pressure screening, differentiation of primary and secondary hypertension for successful treatment and control of the disease, as well as the development of
    methods for analyzing multiple factors for accurate diagnosis and prediction of spread. arterial hypertension. Of greatest research interest are the issues of accurate measurement of blood pressure during routine medical examinations of children, including invasive or noninvasive methods for measuring blood pressure in newborns, the availability of proven equipment and specialists in pediatric hypertension, and the interpretation of blood pressure measurements.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Valeev V. V. [4] Bezymyanny A. S. [3] Traskovetskaya I. G. [1]

    Tags: adolescents3 arterial hypertension2 children13 hypertension2 prevalence6

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  • 2023 № 5 Medical and social problems of the prevalence of ENT diseases and the availability of otorhinolaryngological care to the population, including children (review of foreign literature)

    An analysis of foreign scientific sources suggests that the prevalence of otorhinolaryngological diseases in the world is high and affects the increase in disability and mortality rates. The most common pediatric otorhinolaryngological disease worldwide is otitis media. Low availability of specialized otorhinolaryngologist care and socioeconomic disadvantage are associated with earlier, more frequent and severe ENT disease in children. The most vulnerable to otitis media leading to hearing loss are children of low socioeconomic status (even in developed countries) and indigenous children in all countries of the world. In low- and middle-income countries, pediatric
    otorhinolaryngology faces challenges associated with a lack of infrastructure and equipment, a relatively small health care budget, a shortage of medical staff, and a lack of political will. In multicultural developed countries, the lack of understanding in medical institutions of the need to take into account ethno-cultural characteristics, as well as a decrease in confidence in medical institutions, creates constant barriers to access to medical services.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Mingazov R. N. [11] Oleinik A. V. [2]

    Tags: accessibility3 children13 ent diseases3 medical and social problems1 otorhinolaryngological care2 prevalence6

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  • 2023 № 3 Lifestyles of students, including with disturbances in physical development during the COVID‑19 pandemic

    The article deals with issues that characterize the lifestyle of students in the context of the COVID‑19 pandemic. A number of researchers found that during this period, cases of physical and mental health disorders, non-compliance with the norms of good nutrition, a significant decrease in physical activity, changes in the physical parameters of the body, weight gain, etc. became more frequent among students.
    Materials and methods. An international methodology was applied to assess the structure of the students’ lifestyle – the Health-Promoting
    Lifestyle Profile Questionnaire (HLPP-II). The methodology takes into account the characteristic features of 6 integral components (responsibility for health, physical activity, nutrition, spiritual growth, interpersonal relationships and stress management). For the purpose of comparative analysis, 505 students surveyed were divided into 3 groups depending on the body mass index: those with underweight, with normal body weight, and those with excess body weight.
    Findings. The results obtained made it possible to establish that among those with a deficiency or excess of body weight compared with those with normal body weight, there were significantly more students with a low level of severity of all 6 considered components of the overall level of health.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Gureev S.  A. [7] Mingazov R. N. [11]

    Tags: deficiency and excess of body weight2 lifestyle2 physical development disorders1 students5

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  • 2023 № 1 Bronchitis in children’s populations of different countries, risk factors

    The issues of etiology, clinical presentation, distribution, diagnosis and treatment of bronchitis, as one of the most common respiratory diseases among children, are of considerable research interest. Risk factors for bronchitis are considered meteorological indicators (wind speed and direction, anomalies in relative humidity and atmospheric pressure, a decrease or increase in temperature), environmental pollution (tobacco smoke, NO2 and PM10), immune dysfunctions, preterm birth, exclusive breastfeeding for ≤ 4 months of life. Currently, a significant place in the research literature is occupied by the issues of acute, protracted bacterial and plastic bronchitis in children. Acute bronchitis is mainly caused by a viral infection, mainly rhinovirus, enterovirus, influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus, with bacteria detected in 1–10% of cases. Protracted bacterial bronchitis, isolated as a clinical diagnosis since 2006, can occur in up to 88,5% of cases in children with chronic wet cough, wheezing and airway deformities, more often in children under 6 years of age and males. Prolonged bacterial bronchitis is mainly caused by the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. It is believed that recurrent bronchitis (>3 episodes/year) and the presence of H. influenzae infection in the lower respiratory tract may be significant risk factors for bronchiectasis Plastic bronchitis, a rare disease, in the
    pediatric population is associated with cardiothoracic surgery (Fontaine operation), infections (viruses influenza, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, tuberculosis, adenoviruses, in particular serotype 7), inflammatory and allergic diseases, acute chest syndrome and iatrogenic processes.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Mingazov R. N. [11] Valeev V. V. [4] Smbatyan S. M. [2] Kanchukoev Z. I. [1]

    Tags: acute bronchitis1 bronchitis in children1 child populations1 plastic bronchitis1 protracted bacterial bronchitis1 risk factors15

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  • 2023 № 1 Socio-hygienic and clinical-microbiological features of the formation of reproductive health disorders in adolescent girls

    Studies show that inflammatory diseases of the small pelvis and inflammatory diseases of the external genital organs are risk factors for the formation of reproductive health disorders in adolescent girls, the reason for seeking advice and treatment in outpatient and inpatient medical organizations. It is generally believed that pelvic inflammatory disease, as a consequence of the activity of a polymicrobial infection, usually occurs in sexually active women and is rare in young women and adolescent girls who are not sexually active. However, worldwide the prevalence of pelvic inflammatory disease remains quite high among children and adolescent girls of prepubertal and sexually inactive age. In contrast, inflammatory gynecological diseases of the external genital organs are considered a common pathology in girls of early and prepubertal age, however, studies show that they are common among adolescent girls due to the high prevalence
    of risk factors. Early diagnosis and treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in adolescent girls is essential to ensure fertility and reproductive health in this population.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Zhelezova P. V. [3] Nepomnyashchaya G. G. [1]

    Tags: adolescents3 girls1 gynecological inflammatory diseases1 preventive measures1 reproductive health2 risk factors15

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  • 2022 № 9 The role of risk factors in childhood on the formation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    An analysis of literature on COPD in children has shown that COPD arises from an accelerated decline in lung function, an inability to achieve normal lung function after childhood, or a combination of the two. Risk factors for the development of COPD are considered negative environmental influences; maternal smoking, intrauterine development disorders, prematurity, low birth weight, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well as frequent or severe respiratory infections in childhood (especially respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus) that prevent the full growth and development of the lungs; asthma in childhood; early allergic sensitization and/or a rare genetic disorder (alpha‑1 antitrypsin deficiency), childhood chronic cough, parental history of respiratory disease, and low educational attainment. Particularly vulnerable are children from socio-economically low strata of the population, in particular,
    from among the indigenous population of multi-ethnic countries. In low- and middle-income countries, diagnosing COPD is difficult, and the disease may go undiagnosed. Bronchial asthma in childhood can be considered as an independent risk factor for COPD in adulthood. At the same time, the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome is widespread, the risk of which is especially high among individuals with persistent and severe childhood asthma, which is highly dependent on genetics. Targeted programs are needed to reduce the risk of adverse pulmonary outcomes in disadvantaged children, as well as the integration of specialized outreach services into primary health care. The WHO COPD core package includes protocols for assessing, diagnosing and managing COPD, as well as modules on healthy lifestyles, including smoking cessation and self-help, and development of rehabilitation services.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Mingazov R. N. [11] Valeev V. V. [4] Babaev Y. A. [1] Smbatyan S. M. [2]

    Tags: bronchial asthma2 children13 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd)1 risk factors15

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  • 2022 № 8 Population and birth rates in assessing dynamic changes in the reproductive potential of the region

    The article analyzes the dynamic changes in the main indicators of the reproductive potential of the region, such as the
    number of female and male population of the region (on the example of the Republic of Dagestan), the structure of women by age groups and changes in the number of women of reproductive age, birth rates. The theoretical material for the study was legal documents and statistical collections, literary sources, as well as materials of statistical analysis of the demographic situation in the regions; in the course of the analysis, the following methods were used: study and generalization of experience, analytical, statistical.
    M a t e r i a l s a n d m e t h o d s : bibliographic, sociological, statistical and analytical methods.
    F i n d i n g s . The results of the study showed that the number of women in the age groups of 15–19 years and 20–24 years has noticeably decreased in the republic, in recent years the number of women in the age group of 25–29 years has been declining (after their stable growth in previous years), and negative changes in the structure of the number of women of young childbearing age may cause a decrease in the birth rate in the coming years, despite the still high level of large families.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Gasajnieva M. M. [3]

    Tags: birth rate2 demographic situation1 natural population growth1 population size1 reproductive potential1

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  • 2022 № 8 The issue of age-related characteristics of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the population of various countries

    Without interventions to halt the rise in diabetes, it is believed that by 2045 there will be at least 629 million people living with diabetes in the world. Currently, four out of five people with diabetes, approximately 80% of the world’s 463 million, live in lowand middle-income countries, and the incidence of diabetes is increasing in poorer, marginalized, socioeconomically vulnerable and indigenous communities. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes with onset in youth, defined as diabetes diagnosed before the age of 25, is increasing worldwide. It should be noted that type 2 diabetes, which occurs at a young age, most often manifests itself in the second decade of life. There are about 652 thousand children with type 2 diabetes in the world. It is estimated that there will be around 41,600 new cases of diagnosed type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents worldwide in 2021. Along with the increase in the prevalence of diabetes among children and adolescents, there is an increase in the incidence of pre-diabetes preceding the development of type 2 diabetes. They found an 8% risk of progression from pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes over a 3-year period, confirming the importance of interventions to reduce obesity, pre-diabetes, and insulin resistance.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Mingazov R. N. [11] Valeev V. V. [4]

    Tags: adolescents3 age1 children13 countries of the world1 diabetes mellitus6 prevalence6 youth1

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  • Population and health
  • 2022 № 6 Peculiarities of the quality of life of students, including with disturbances in physical development, under the conditions of the COVID‑19 pandemic

    In the context of the COVID‑19 pandemic, student youth are facing significant adverse impacts that affect the state of physical and mental health, as well as changes in quality of life indicators. Factors such as the sudden transition of students to online learning, the closure of hostels, limited access to public spaces, an increase in morbidity in the close environment, the manifestation of fears and phobias had a negative impact. Students have irregular meals, limited access to good nutrition, increased time spent in front of the monitor, less opportunities for physical activity and associated significant changes in physical parameters, namely obesity, an increase in body mass index weight.
    Materials and methods: bibliographic, socio-hygienic, sociological, statistical, analytical methods were used in the work.
    Findings. Analysis of the results of the study made it possible to establish: a) the average level of the physical component of students’ health is higher than the psychological one; the indicator of the physical component of health, corresponding to the norm, was observed in 70.7% of students; psychological – in 63.4% of students; no statistically significant relationship was found between the physical and psychological components of students’ health; b) in terms of the physical and psychological components of health, the largest percentage of respondents with a norm was noted among students with a lack of body weight; a low level of the physical component of health is much more common in the group of students with excess body weight, compared with the other studied groups

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Gureev S.  A. [7] Mingazov R. N. [11]

    Tags: deficiency and excess of body weight2 disorders in physical development1 quality of life7 students5

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  • 2019 № 9 Features of the medical and demographic process in the Kostroma region as a region of Central Russia

    Based on the official statistics from Rosstat, the article presents the results of the analysis of the medical and demographic process using the example of the Kostroma region taking into account the general trend in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, including the dynamics of the population, the main demographic indicators of mortality and fertility, and indicators of natural population movement.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Schepin V. O. [1] Zhelezova P. V. [3]

    Tags: medical-demographic process1 population birth rate1 population depopulation1 population mortality.1

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  • Professional community
  • 2021 № 5 Role of the “national medical chamber” in coordinating the activities of medical professional communities (for the anniversary of the “National medical chamber”)

    The field of healthcare in the modern period of its development is so multifaceted, complex, and also due to the synthesis of professional competencies and skills from various fields of medical science and jurisprudence, which requires a pooling of efforts for its effective functioning.
    Purpose of the study is to analyze the current activities of the National Medical Chamber as the main aggregator of medical professional communities and medical associations.
    M a t e r i a l s a n d m e t h o d s : materials for the undertaken analysis were literature sources, documents, resolutions. Methods of comparative analysis and systematization of information, content analysis were used in the work.
    R e s u l t s . The article provides an analysis of the activities of the “National Medical Chamber”, created ten years ago with the aim of aggregating medical communities in their professional activities towards improving the health care system of the country’s population. It is shown that these trend directions have become key, meeting the modern needs of the effective development of the industry in conjunction with the medical professional communities, the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, and world achievements. The article reflects the issues of preserving the problems of self-government in the activities of various medical professional communities and medical associations.
    F i n d i n g s . The ten-year period of activity of the “National Medical Chamber”, based on a consistent, reasoned, analytically verified ideology, allows us to calibrate and clearly solve the assigned tasks on the “painful areas” of healthcare.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Gureev S.  A. [7] Sadykova R. N. [2]

    Tags: accreditation commissions1 healthcare11 medical associations1 medical professional communities1 professional competencies and skills1 professional standards7 the ministry of health of the russian federation1 “national medical chamber”1

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  • Public health
  • 2022 № 4 Features of the main anthropometric indicators of physical development of students

    P u r p o s e : to determine the features of the main anthropometric indicators of the physical development of students during their studies in the context of the COVID‑19 pandemic.
    M a t e r i a l s a n d m e t h o d s . Medical and sociological research was conducted among students of one of the Institutes of the Russian State University named after A. N. Kosygin (Technology. Design. Art). The continuous sample of students was 505 people. During the study, clinical, socio-hygienic, statistical, analytical methods were used.
    R e s u l t s . The proportion of persons from the continuous sample (n=505) with normal body mass index was 64.8%, the proportion with underweight indicators was 23.1%, with excess body weight indicators – 12.1%, respectively. The largest proportion of persons with indicators of body weight deficiency was observed in the age group of 18–19 years – 23.5%, the smallest – in the age group of 22–23 years – 12.1% (Р˂0.05). However, the reverse trend is observed in the number of overweight people – with age, their proportion in the respective groups increases: from 9.3% in the age group of 18–19 years old to 18.2% in the group of 22–23 years old (Р˂0.05).
    F i n d i n g s . As a result of the study, it was found that the majority of students have normal body mass index, their share is 64.8%; the proportion of people with deviations in physical development is high – 35.2%, and almost every fourth student has a lack of body weight (their share in the sample is 23.1%,), one in eight is overweight (their share in the sample is 12, one%); the average value of BMI among the contingent of students (median) corresponding to the standard value was revealed, however, its high scatter was determined, amounting to 23.01, which indicates the need to use more accurate methods for analyzing the assessment of physical development indicators, for example, the method using regression scales.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Gureev S.  A. [7]

    Tags: anthropometric indicators1 body mass index1 overweight1 physical development1 students5 underweight1

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  • 2022 № 3 Features of the state of health of students during their training, including in the conditions of COVID‑19

    Purpose: to assess the characteristics of the health status of students in the conditions of education during the pandemic period – 2020–2021. The analysis of the data obtained will form the basis of the developed medical recommendations, organizational measures aimed at maintaining the health of students, including various periods of increased infectious risks.
    Materials and methods: Medical and sociological research was conducted among students of one of the Institutes of the Russian
    State University named after A. N. Kosygin (Technology. Design. Art). The continuous sample of students was 505 people. In the course of the study, socio-hygienic, clinical, statistical, and analytical methods were used.
    Results: It was revealed that in the process of teaching student youth, an increase in the number of people with chronic diseases is determined; diseases of the nervous system, organs of the digestive system, ENT organs and the cardiovascular system prevailed in the structure of chronic diseases of students.
    Findings: It was found that there is no difference between the number of patients with coronovirus infection among students who do not have chronic diseases and among those who have chronic pathology. Among students with chronic diseases and recovering from Covid‑19, the most common were people with chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system, chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract, and people who often get colds (4 or more times a year). Studying the state of health of students is important, both from the point of view of its comprehensive assessment, and from the standpoint of analyzing subsequent dynamic changes, which makes it possible to identify trends in changes in health in the dynamics of education, as well as to introduce appropriate medical and social adjustments.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Gureev S.  A. [7]

    Tags: chronic diseases1 covid-1927 health status2 prevention23 students5

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  • 2021 № 10 PREVENTIVE EXAMINATIONS OF MINORS AS PART OF NEW GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE COVID‑19 PANDEMIC

    The article discusses the medical and organizational aspects of conducting preventive examinations of minors as part of new state initiatives of a post-COVID‑19 orientation. The main positions of the Draft Order of the Ministry of Health of May 19, 2021, which will enter into force on September 1, 2021, have been studied, where a structural algorithm has been developed for conducting preventive examinations of minors in the context of an epidemic situation. The regulated positions presented in the document have been studied in the aspect of general medical tasks declared by the state during the modern period of development of the healthcare industry. Such directions, formed in the Project, as diagnostics of post-COVID‑19 complications from various systems of the body of minors, issues of monitoring of reproductive health and physical development are considered. The continuity is shown in the implementation of measures to level violations of the health status of minors within the framework of legislative, managerial
    and organizational initiatives.
    Purpose: analysis of modern legislative materials initiated by the State in the field of preventive examinations of minors, including during the period of the new coronavirus infection COVID‑19; characteristics of the concept of new directions of the program of preventive examinations of minors.
    Materials and methods. The analytical sources of the study were the legal framework, scientific literature data on the issues of preventive examinations of minors. Methods were used in the work: bibliographic, analytical, statistical, comparative analysis.
    Results. A comprehensive analysis showed that the algorithm for conducting preventive examinations of minors is determined by the legislative branch level and checked by the time factor, but is not a constant. Changing living conditions dictate new challenges, determine the inclusion of additional items in the survey of the contingent – laboratory and diagnostic directions, as well as change in time parameters in the examination and organizational support for preventive examinations of minors. The changes introduced undoubtedly require monitoring analysis of indicators on the problem, including comparative scientific analysis and prompt response to new tasks that are determined by time, issues of the medical and social environment.
    Findings. The main organizational directions in the structure of preventive examinations of minors are: diagnostics of post-COVID‑19 complications, monitoring of physical development and the formation of reproductive health, determination of scientifically grounded approaches to admitting the contingent to physical education, the formation of a “data bank” of the results of basic and additional research methods. A comparative analysis of the prevalence of the distribution of minors by health groups based on the results of preventive medical examinations showed the lack of dynamics of indicators in the time period 2014–2020. Undergoing preventive medical examinations, as well as targeted regional policy in this direction, purposefully forming a “healthy childhood environment”, taking into account the development of the local industrial infrastructure.

    Authors: Shchepin V. O. [5] Mingazova E. N. [27] Zagoruychenko A. A. [8] Mingazov R. N. [11] Gasajnieva M. M. [3]

    Tags: health groups2 legislative acts1 minors1 physical health1 post-covid‑19 measures1 preventive medical examinations1 reproductive health2

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  • 2021 № 9 Elimination of preventable child mortality as a global task of the XXI century, including in the context of the COVID‑19 pandemic

    Despite a sharp reduction (by almost 60 percent) over the past 30 years in the mortality of children and young people, including those under the age of five, the global burden of this problem, according to the UN, remains enormous. The paper provides information on the analysis of data from foreign scientific literature on the indicators of child mortality and its causes in foreign countries, including in the conditions of the COVID‑19 pandemic. It is during the pandemic that many countries experience interruptions in the provision of maternal and child health services, such as medical examinations, vaccination, prenatal and postpartum care due to lack of resources. Studies show that the overall risk of death from COVID‑19 in children is quite low. The causes of infant mortality are mainly factors associated with neonatal mortality: premature birth, low birth weight, complications during childbirth, neonatal sepsis, as well as infectious diseases, more often pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria, and insufficient vaccination. In order to prevent and reduce global child mortality, strategies are needed to provide adequate medical and social services to the population, as well as poverty eradication programs.
    P u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y : to review foreign scientific literature containing information on the analysis of child mortality rates and its causes in foreign countries, including in the conditions of the COVID‑19 pandemic.
    M a t e r i a l s a n d m e t h o d s of research: bibliographic, information and analytical methods and methods of comparative analysis were used.
    R e s u l t s . Studies have shown that only 122 countries were able to achieve the target of mortality of children under the age of five, designated in the “Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) ” – 25 or less deaths per 1,000 live births by 2019. The death rate of young children is highest in areas where the poor, ethnic or religious minorities, indigenous peoples and people who are discriminated against live. Studies conducted in 2020 showed that the overall risk of death from COVID‑19 in children is quite low.
    The COVID‑19 pandemic has led to serious disruptions in the work of health services, which threaten to negate efforts to eliminate child mortality.
    F i n d i n g s . In order to prevent and reduce global child mortality, strategies are needed to provide adequate medical and social services to the population, programs to eradicate poverty, and provide access to obstetric and prenatal services. Many countries are experiencing disruptions in the provision of maternal and child health services, such as medical examinations, vaccination, prenatal and postnatal care due to a lack of resources during the pandemic. Due to failures in the health system during the COVID‑19 pandemic, additional deaths of children are possible as a result of potential disruption of health systems.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Shigabutdinova T. N. [2] Mingazov R. N. [11] Allenov A. M. [1]

    Tags: children13 covid-1927 infant mortality2 preventable mortality1

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  • 2021 № 8 Psychological aspects in the problems of infertility among the population of various countries.

    The problem of infertility in the 21st century has become extremely important for public health in various countries, affecting the birth rate of the population and the number of humanity. Infertility, affecting approximately 8–12% of the world’s population, is associated with factors such as unwillingness to conceive, the age of the female partner, the number of diseases that affect fertility, etc. Questions of the influence of psychological problems, often regarded as the causes of idiopathic infertility, such as stress, depression, sleep disturbances, are of particular interest to researchers. A review of works on the potential impact of stress and depression on reproductive function showed not only a definite relationship, but also the difficulty of determining causal relationships due to the lack of a single assessment tool.
    P u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y : to review foreign scientific literature containing information on the role of psychological factors in the formation of reproductive health disorders of the population, including infertility.
    M a t e r i a l s a n d m e t h o d s : bibliographic, information and analytical methods and the method of comparative analysis were used.
    R e s u l t s . Mental health issues are often viewed as the causes of female and male infertility. To improve the quality of life of patients with infertility, it is necessary to address the issues of a causal relationship between psychological health and infertility, psychological health when using IVF and ways to solve the problem of psychologically induced infertility. The risk of developing depression and the relationship of a higher degree of anxiety with clinical pregnancy after IVF are shown. Due to the inaccurate data on the relationship between psychological stress and a decrease in male reproductive function, psychological stress is considered in studies as a risk factor for erectile function and ejaculation in men against the background of a high level of stressful life events, compared with women.
    Findings. Research has proven the effectiveness of psychological support and cognitive-behavioral group therapy in fertility treatment programs, including interventions accompanying IVF. Studies of psychological ways of correcting depression and positive IVF results have shown the importance of programs for influencing the mental state of couples undergoing treatment for infertility reasons.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Tliashinova I. A. [3]

    Tags: causal relationships1 cognitive-behavioral group therapy1 infertility2 psychological disorders1

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  • Sociology of healthcare
  • 2023 № 6 Opinion of pediatric otorhinolaryngologists on the main problems in the organization of medical care and priority areas of activity of the professional medical community.

    A medical and sociological study was carried out in order to determine the opinion of specialists on current problems in the organization of children’s otorhinolaryngological care and on the priority areas of activity of the professional medical community. Five main medical and organizational problems in the organization of children’s otolaryngological care are identified: maintaining and developing human resources, stimulating the work of medical workers; improvement of resource support for assistance, stimulation of investments in the development of the material, technical and technological base; increasing the availability of qualified assistance; management optimization;
    improvement of methodological support and introduction of modern technologies for rendering assistance. Pediatric otorhinolaryngologists consider the main activities of the professional community to be: representing the legitimate interests of the Association members, promoting the protection of their professional and social rights; assistance and participation in advanced training and professional retraining of specialists; professional consolidation, strengthening and development of relations between specialists; meeting the needs of specialists in obtaining knowledge about the latest achievements, advanced domestic and foreign experience.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Oleinik A. V. [2]

    Tags: association of pediatric otorhinolaryngologists1 children13 children’s ent doctors1 ent diseases3 otorhinolaryngological care2 professional medical communities1

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